Faculty Profiles

Dr. Glenn Smith

Dr. Glenn Smith, Ph.D., Associate Professor

smith headshot

Email: glenns@usf.edu
Office Location: EDU302-G
Phone: (813) 974-7922

Bachelors: Computer Science, Arizona State University
Masters: Computer Science, University of Utah
Doctorate: Educational Media and Computers, Arizona State University

Dr. Glenn Smith researches how computer games can help people learn science, language arts, second language learning & other disciplines, partly by embedding computer games into web-based eBooks. He has a patent that reinvents the novel & digital book technology to include online games and social interaction, to increase comprehension skills, content learning & the experience of the story. Dr. Smith also researches distance learning. He teaches graduate courses in computer game design, computer game analytics, web programming, and computer-based educational media design. He has a Master’s degree in Computer Science with a focus on 3D computer graphics and a PhD in Educational Media & Computers. 

Dr. Smith is the coordinator for the Masters in Education (M.Ed) in Instructional Technology program, and is also the faculty advisor for the GameDevClub at USF

Teaching

Publications 

Book Chapters

Feldman, A., Nation, M., Smith, G.G., & Besalti, M. (In Press, 2017). Teaching climate change science to high school students: Local place-based approach, web-based novel with computer games, and hands-on activities. In I. Levin & D. Tsybulsky (eds.), Digital Tools and Solutions for Inquiry-Based STEM Learning, New York, NY: IGI Global

Kurthen, H., & Smith, G. G. (2014). Learning Efficiency of Hybrid Courses. In Westover, Jonathan H. and Westover, Jacque P. (Eds.) Engaging Hybrid and Blended Learning in Higher Education (pp. 36-69) (ISBN 978-1-61229-538-1 9000). Champaign, IL: The Learner (University of Illinois Research Park).

Peer-reviewed Publications

Nielen, T. M. J., Smith, G. G., Sikkema-de Jong, M. T., Drobisz, J., van Horne, B., & Bus, A. G. (Accepted for publication, 2017). Digital guidance for susceptible readers: effects on fifth graders’ reading motivation and incidental vocabulary learning, Journal of Educational Computing Research.

Smith, G.G., Li, M., Drobisz, J., Park, H., Kim, D., & Smith, S. D. (2013). Play games or study? Computer Games in eBooks to Learn English Vocabulary, Computers & Education, 69, 274-286, http://authors.elsevier.com/sd/article/S0360131513001826

Gill, G. & Smith, G.G. (2013) IMapBook: Engaging Young Readers With Games, Journal of Information Technology Education, 2(10), 1-22.

Smith, G. G. (2012). Computer-Game Play as Imaginary Stage for Reading: Implicit Spatial Effects of Computer Games Embedded in Hard Copy Books, Journal of Research in Reading, 35(1), 1–19 DOI: 10.1111/j.1467-9817.2010.01447.x

Smith, G. G., Majchrzak, D., Hayes, S., & Drobisz, J. (2011). Computer Games versus Maps before Reading Stories: Priming Readers' Spatial Situation Models. Educational Technology & Society, 14 (1), 158–168.

Smith, G. G., Sorensen, C., Gump, A., Heindel, A. J., Caris, M., &amp Martinez, C. D. (2011) Overcoming student resistance to group work: Online versus face-to-face, The Internet and Higher Education, 14, 121–128. doi:10.1016/j.iheduc.2010.09.005 http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.iheduc.2010.09.005 

Smith, G. G., & Ritzhaupt, A. (2010). Strategies in visuospatial working memory for learning virtual shapes, Applied Cognitive Psychology, 24, 1095–1114. DOI: 10.1002/acp.1620 Online version: http://www3.interscience.wiley.com/journal/122584232/abstract 

Smith, G. G., Passmore, D., & Faught, T. (2009). The Challenges of Online Nursing Education, The Internet and Higher Education, 12, 98–103. 

Tapanes, M., Smith, G. G., & White, J. (2009). Cultural diversity in online learning: A study of the perceived effects of dissonance in levels of individualism/collectivism and tolerance of ambiguity, The Internet and Higher Education, 11, 26-34. 

Smith, G. G., Gerretson, H., Olkun, S., Yuan, Y., Dogbey, J., & Erdem, A. (2009). Stills, not full motion, for interactive spatial training: American, Turkish and Taiwanese female pre-service teachers learn spatial visualization, Computers and Education , 52, 201-209. 

Smith, G. G., Heindel, A. J., & Torres, A. T. (2008). E-learning commodity or community: Disciplinary differences between online courses, Internet and Higher Education, 1, 152–15. 

Smith, G. G., Torres-Ayala A. T., & Heindel, A. J. (2008). Disciplinary Differences in E-learning Instructional Design, Journal of Distance Education, 22(3), 63-88. 

Smith, G. G ., & Kurthen, H. (2007). Front-stage and back-stage in hybrid-learning face-to-face course, International Journal on E-learning, 6(3), 455-474.

Smith, G. G ., Morey, J. & Tjoe, E. (2007). Feature masking in computer game promotes visual imagery, Journal of Educational Computing Research, 36(3), 351-372. 

Kurthen, H. and Glenn G. Smith. (2006). Hybrid Online Face-to-Face Teaching: When is it an efficient Learning Tool? International Journal of Learning, 12 (5), 237-246.

Smith, G. G. , Olkun, S. (2005). Why Interactivity Works: interactive priming of mental rotation, Journal of Educational Computing Research, 32(2), 93-111.

Smith, G. G. & Ferguson, D. (2005). Student attrition in mathematics e-learning, Australasian Journal of Educational Technology.

Smith, G. G. (2005). Problems with e-learning we can’t ignore: one size does not fit all,Proceedings of ED-MEDIA 2005: World Conference on Educational Multimedia, Hypermedia & Telecommunications, Montreal, Canada.

Kurthen, H. & Smith, G. G. (2005). Why Doesn’t My hybrid Class Take Off? Threshold Effects in Hybrid and Blended Online Face-to-Face Courses, International Journal of Learning.

Smith, G. G., Olkun, S. (2005). Why Interactivity Works: interactive priming of mental rotation, Journal of Educational Computing Research, 32(2), 93-111

Smith, G. G., Taveras, M. (2005, February). The Missing Instructor: Does e-learning promote absenteeism?. eLearn Magazine. [On-line serial] http://www.elearnmag.org/

Smith, G. G. (2005). How do computer games affect your children?, Eurasian Journal of Educational Research, April, 2005.

Olkun, S., Arif Altun, A., Smith, G., G. (2005). Computers and 2D geometric learning of Turkish fourth and fifth graders, The British Journal of Educational Technology, 36(2), 317-326.

Smith, G.G., Ferguson. D. (2004). Learning math problem-solving in online courses, Proceedings of E-Learn 2004: World Conference on E-Learning in Corporate, Healthcare, & Higher Education, Washington DC.

Smith, G.G., Kurthen, H. (2004). Hybrid Online Face-to-face Courses: a Sociological analysis, Proceedings of E-Learn 2004: World Conference on E-Learning in Corporate, Healthcare, & Higher Education, Washington DC.

Smith, G., G., (in press). Navigate your 17th century ship: architecture for an online multi-player computer game trigonometry course, in the monograph published as part of the symposium Online Mathematical Investigation as a Narrative Experience (11-13 June 2004), London, Ontario, Canada. Su, R.,

Smith, G., G. (2004). How People Interpret Volume Rendered Medical Data, Proceedings of ED-MEDIA 2004: World Conference on Educational Multimedia, Hypermedia & Telecommunications, Lugano, Switzerland.

Smith, G. G., Olkun, S. (2004). Educating the inner eye: Scaffolding spatial skills with partial sensory support, Proceedings of ED-MEDIA 2004: World Conference on Educational Multimedia, Hypermedia & Telecommunications, Lugano, Switzerland.

Smith, G. G., Kurthen, H. (2004). Hybrid online face-to-face courses in micro-sociological perspective, Proceedings of ED-MEDIA 2004: World Conference on Educational Multimedia, Hypermedia & Telecommunications, Lugano, Switzerland.

Smith, G., G., Ferguson, D., Gupta, S. (2004). Diagrams and math notation in E-learning: Growing pains of a new generation. International Journal of Mathematical Education in Science and Technology, 35(1), 681-695.

Smith, G.G., Ferguson. D. (2003). Two-way online communication of diagrams and math notation: implications for instructional design of e-learning math courses, Proceedings of E-Learn 2003: World Conference on E-Learning in Corporate, Healthcare, & Higher Education, 735-738.

Smith, G., G., Olkun, S., Middleton, J. A. (2003). Interactive versus observational learning of spatial visualization of geometric transformations. Australian Educational Computing, June 2003, 18(1), 3-10. Also viewable online at http://www.acce.edu.au/journal/journals/vol18_1.pdf.

Smith, G. G., Olkun, S. (2003). Leap before you look: Interact then mentally rotate - spatial skills, Proceedings of ED-MEDIA 2003: World Conference on Educational Multimedia, Hypermedia & Telecommunications, USA, 4, 2798-2803.

Smith, G., G., Grackin, J.A., Ferguson, D., Gupta, S. (2003). Distance calculus students’ understanding of derivative, Proceedings of ED-MEDIA 2003: World Conference on Educational Multimedia, Hypermedia & Telecommunications, USA, 1, 215-220.

Smith, G. G., Ferguson, D., & Caris M. (2002). Teaching online versus face-to-face. Journal of Educational Technology Systems, 30(4), 337-364.

Smith, G., G., Grackin, J.A., Ferguson, D. & Izubuchi, R. (2002). Math and Distance Learning threaded discussions, Proceedings of ED-MEDIA 2002: World Conference on Educational Multimedia, Hypermedia & Telecommunications, USA, 3, 1819-1824.

Smith, G., G., (2002). Java WEB-based K-12 Experimental Research: Formative evaluation of Research Tools, Proceedings of ED-MEDIA 2002: World Conference on Educational Multimedia, Hypermedia & Telecommunications, USA, 3,1817-1818.

Smith, G., G. (2001). “Interaction evokes reflection: Learning Efficiency in Spatial Visualization,” has been selected as one of the 25 best EDMEDIA 2001 papers by the editors of The Interactive Multimedia Electronic Journal of Computer-Enhanced Learning and published in a multimedia version in IMEJ http://imej.wfu.edu/articles/2001/2/05/index.asp

Smith, G., G,. (2001). Interaction Evokes Reflection, Proceedings of ED-MEDIA 2001: World Conference on Educational Multimedia, Hypermedia & Telecommunications, Finland, 3, 1755-1760.

Smith, G., G, Ferguson, D., & Caris M. (2001). Teaching Online versus in the Classroom, Proceedings of ED-MEDIA 2001: World Conference on Educational Multimedia, Hypermedia & Telecommunications, Finland, 3, 1761-1766.

Smith, G., G., Ferguson, D., & Caris M. (2001). Teaching College Courses Online versus Face-to-Face. Technological Horizons in Education (also archived online at http://www.thejournal.com/magazine/vault/A3407.cfm ), April, 2001, 29(9), 18-26.

Smith, G., G., & Grant, B. (2000). From Players to Programmers: A Computer Game Design Class for Middle-School Children. Journal of Educational Technology Systems. 28(3), 263-275

Paper Presentations at Conferences

Smith, G. G. (2012, April), How Computer Games and New Media are Changing Text Comprehension & learning?, Session & individual paper presented at the Annual meeting of the American Educational Research Association, Vancouver, Canada.

Smith, G. G., McNamara, D. S., Jackson, G. T., Johnson-Glenberg, M. C. (2011, June). Digital text, computer games & comprehension, Symposium at the Annual meeting of Games Learning & Society, Madison, WI.

Smith, G. G. (2011, April). Computer-Game Play as Imaginary Stage for Reading: Pentop computers, hardcopy books and spatial situation models, Paper presented at the Annual meeting of the American Educational Research Association, New Orleans, Louisiana.

Smith, G. G. (2011, February). Old Text Learns New Tricks: Embedding Computer Games in Hardcopy Books with Pentop Computers, Paper presented at 2011 Society for Applied Learning Technology, Conference on New Learning Technologies, Orlando, Florida.

Smith, G. G. & Hayes, S. (2010, June). Incorporating games into books to improve spatial reading, Paper presented at the Annual meeting of Games Learning & Society, Madison, WI.

Smith, G. G. (2010, April). Scaffolding spatial reading with interactive games in hardcopy books, via pentop computers, Poster presented as part of a thematic poster session, “Games Research 2.0: Assessing Learning in and Around Educational Games and Virtual Worlds” Paper presented at the Annual meeting of the American Educational Research Association, Denver, CO.

Heindel, A. H. & Smith, G. G. (2010, April). The Potential of Group Work in Higher Education: Student Perceptions of Online and Face-to-Face Experiences, Paper presented at the Annual meeting of the American Educational Research Association, Denver, CO.

Joutsenlahti, J., Smith, G.G., Gerretson, H., & Olkun, S. (2009, Nov). Word problems in school mathematics: Story in mathematics or mathematics in story? Paper presented at the Finnish Annual Congress of Educational Research, Tampere, Finland.

Smith, G. G. (2009). Strategies in visuospatial working memory for learning virtual shapes, Spatial Training Conference, May 3-5th, 2009, Invited presentation, all expenses paid, National Science Foundation sponsored conference, Chicago, IL.

Smith, G. G., & Majchrzak, D. (2009, April). Computer games versus maps, before reading stories: which primes readers’ spatial situation models? Poster presented at the Annual meeting of the American Educational Research Association, San Diego, CA.

Smith, G. G., Gerretson, H., Olkun. S. (2009, April). Put the story back into story problems: Effect of causal narrative on mathematical word problem comprehension, Paper presented at the Annual meeting of the American Educational Research Association, San Diego, CA.

Heindel, A., & Smith, G. G. (2009). Cooperative Groups within Online Courses in Higher Education: Promise or Paradox?, Paper presented Annual meeting of the American Educational Research Association, San Diego, CA.

Smith, G. G. (2008). Can interactive fiction really work spatially? –accountability and spatial situation models from reading as design factors, ICLS2008 in the Netherlands, International Perspectives in the Learning Sciences, Utrecht, The Netherlands, June 23-28, 2008

Smith, G. G. (2008). Embedding computers in books to improve spatial situation models: one theoretical and one applied pilot study, Conference on Research and Training in Spatial Intelligence, June 13-15, 2008, Invited paper presentation, National Science Foundation sponsored conference, Chicago, IL.

Torres, A., Heindel, A., & Smith, G. G., (2008, March). Course Management Software (CMS) Tool Usage across Disciplines - Transactional Distance, Paper presented at the Annual meeting of the American Educational Research Association, New York, NY.

Passmore, D., & Smith, G. G. (2008, March). Online Nursing Education: Faculty Experiences with Assessment, Paper presented at the Annual meeting of the American Educational Research Association, New York, NY.

Olkun. S, Smith, G. G. & Gerretson. H. (2007, July). Analyzing and enhancing geometric transformation skills of elementary education pre-service teachers within an international context, Paper presented at the 8th International Conference on Technology in Mathematics Education, Hradec Kralove, Czech Republic.

Smith, G. G., Ritzhaupt, A.R. (2007, April). How do people remember new virtual shapes? Paper presented at the Annual meeting of the American Educational Research Association, Chicago, IL.

Smith, G. G. (2005, October). Buttressing Mental Imagery: Does Spatial Scaffolding Change People's Strategies? Paper presented at the Annual meeting of the International Visual Literacy Association, Orlando, FL.

Mental model training wheels: Scaffolding mental imagery with partial sensory support, International Conference on Mathematics Education (Spatial Visualization Group), July 2004, Copenhagen, Denmark.

Teaching problem-solving in e-learning, Conference on Instructional Technologies, June 2004, Stony Brook, NY.

Hybrid online and face-to-face courses in the classroom: Fad or efficient new teaching tool?, Conference on Instructional Technologies, June 2004, Stony Brook, NY.

Two-way online communication of diagrams and math notation: implications for instructional design of e-learning math courses, E-Learn 2003: World Conference on E-Learning in Corporate, Healthcare, & Higher Education, November 2003, Phoenix, AZ.

Leap before you look: Interact then mentally rotate - spatial skills, ED-MEDIA 2003: World Conference on Educational Multimedia, Hypermedia & Telecommunications, June 2003, Honolulu, HI.

Distance calculus students’ understanding of derivative, ED-MEDIA 2003: World Conference on Educational Multimedia, Hypermedia & Telecommunications, June 2003, Honolulu, HI.

Math and Distance Learning threaded discussions, ED-MEDIA 2002: World Conference on Educational Multimedia, Hypermedia & Telecommunications, June 2002, Denver, CO.

Java WEB-based K-12 Experimental Research: Formative evaluation of Research Tools, ED-MEDIA 2002: World Conference on Educational Multimedia, Hypermedia & Telecommunications, June 2002, Denver, CO.

Math and Distance Learning Threaded Discussions, Conference on Instructional Technology 2002, May 2002, Oneonta, NY.Interaction Evokes Reflection, ED-MEDIA 2001: World Conference on Educational Multimedia, Hypermedia & Telecommunications, June 2001, Tampere, Finland.

Teaching Online versus in the Classroom, ED-MEDIA 2001: World Conference on Educational Multimedia, Hypermedia & Telecommunications, June, 2001, Tampere, Finland.

Mathematics by Web-Based Distance Education: What Instructors Need, Conference on Instructional Technology 2001, May 2001, Geneseo, NY.

Online vs. face-to-face: teaching two sections of the same course, Conference on Instructional Technology 2000, May 2000, Buffalo, NY.

Spatial weaning: effects of high, low and alternating levels of computer interactivity on spatial visualization, American Educational Research Association, April 2000, New Orleans, LA.

Interactive versus observational learning of spatial visualization of geometric transformations, American Educational Research Association, April 1999, Montreal, Canada.

The Development of Spatial Visualization and Representation of Geometric Transformations in a Computer-Mediated Environment, American Educational Research Association, April 1998, SanDiego, CA.

The Cognitive Effects of Computer Games, Microcomputers in Education, March 1997, Tempe, AZ. The Cognitive Effects of Computer Games, National Association for Gifted Children, November 1996, Indianapolis, IN.

Poster Presentations at Conferences

Distance math environments for formulas/diagrams/graphs: What are the cognitive learning issues?, Joint Mathematics Meetings, January 2003, Baltimore, MD.

MathThread: Formulas/diagrams in Web distance college math, Poster MathThread, The American Mathematical Association of Two-Year Colleges, November 2002, Phoenix, AZ.

Interaction before Reflection, European Conference on Computer-Supported Collaborative Learning, March 23, 2001, Maastricht, Netherlands.

Refereed Conference Proceedings

Smith, G.G., Caris, M., & Drobisz, J. (2013). Professor to Producer of eBooks with computer games. In A. Ochsner (Ed.) Proceedings of the 9th Annual Games+Learning+Society Conference. Pittsburgh, PA: ETC Press.

Smith, G. G., Li, M., Park, H., Kim, D. & Drobisz, J. (2012, June). English Foreign Language Students Learn Vocabulary with Inferencing Computer Games, Paper presentation at the Annual meeting of Games Learning & Society, Madison, WI.

Smith, G. G. & Olkun, S (2011). Computer Games, Imaginary Stage for Reading, Proceedings of ED-MEDIA 2011: World Conference on Educational Multimedia, Hypermedia & Telecommunications, Lisbon, Portugal.

Smith, G. G. & Olkun, S. (2011). Put the story back into story problems, Proceedings of ED-MEDIA 2011: World Conference on Educational Multimedia, Hypermedia & Telecommunications, Lisbon, Portugal.

Smith, G., Akkurt, Z. & Olkun, S. (2011). How do different levels of causation affect students’ performance in word problem solving? In Ubuz, B. (Eds.). Proceedings of the 35rd Conference of the International Group for the Psychology of Mathematics Education, Vol., (pp. 244). Ankara, Turkey: PME

Smith, G., Gerretson, H., Olkun, S., Akkurt, Z., & Dogbey, J. (2009). Cross-cultural comparison of the effect of causal narratives in solving mathematical word problems. In M. Tzekaki, M. Kaldrimidou & C. Sakonidis. (Eds.). Proceedings of the 33rd Conference of the International Group for the Psychology of Mathematics Education, Vol. 5, (pp. 145-152). Thessaloniki, Greece: IGPME.

Olkun, S., Smith, G. G., Gerretson, H., Yuan Y, & Joutsenlahti, J. (2009). Comparing and Enhancing Spatial Skills of Pre-service Elementary School Teachers in Finland, Taiwan, USA, and Turkey, Procedia Social and Behavioral Sciences 1 (2009) 1545–1548, Proceedings of WCES-2009: World Conference on Educational Sciences, Nicosia, Cyprus.

Smith, G., Olkun, S., Gerretson, H., Deryakulu, D., Dogbey, J., & Erdem, A. (2008, July). Pre-service Classroom Teachers' Learning of Spatial Skills through Geometric Transformations- U.S.A. and Turkey. In Luca, J. & Weippl, E.R. (Eds.), Proceedings of ED-MEDIA 2008, (pp.5709-5713), World Conference on Educational Multimedia, Hypermedia & Telecommunications. The Association for the Advancement of Computing in Education [AACE]. Vienna, Austria.

Gerretson H., Smith, G. G., Yuan Y., & Olkun S. (2007). Transfer of spatial visualization: Training with discrete, composite transformations in USA, Taiwan and Turkey, Proceedings of the Twelfth Asian Technology Conference in Mathematics, December 16-20, 2007( http://atcm.mathandtech.org/EP2007/EP2007.htm), Taipei, Taiwan.

Smith, G. G . & Ritzhaupt, A. (2006). Remembering the unfamiliar: Short Term Memory strategies for novel shapes for proliferating virtual worlds, Proceedings of ED-MEDIA 2006: World Conference on Educational Multimedia, Hypermedia & Telecommunications, Orlando, Florida.

Smith, G. G. (2005). Problems with e-learning we can’t ignore: one size does not fit all, Proceedings of ED-MEDIA 2005: World Conference on Educational Multimedia, Hypermedia & Telecommunications, Montreal, Canada.

Smith, G., G., (2004). Navigate your 17th century ship: architecture for an online multi-player computer game trigonometry course, in the monograph published as part of the symposium Online Mathematical Investigation as a Narrative Experience (11-13 June 2004), London, Ontario, Canada.

Smith, G.G., Ferguson. D. (2004). Learning math problem-solving in online courses, Proceedings of E-Learn 2004: World Conference on E-Learning in Corporate, Healthcare, & Higher Education, Washington DC.

Smith, G.G., Kurthen, H. (2004). Hybrid Online Face-to-face Courses: a Sociological analysis, Proceedings of E-Learn 2004: World Conference on E-Learning in Corporate, Healthcare, & Higher Education, Washington DC.

Su, R., Smith, G., G. (2004). How People Interpret Volume Rendered Medical Data, Proceedings of ED-MEDIA 2004: World Conference on Educational Multimedia, Hypermedia & Telecommunications, Lugano, Switzerland.

Smith, G. G., Olkun, S. (2004). Educating the inner eye: Scaffolding spatial skills with partial sensory support, Proceedings of ED-MEDIA 2004: World Conference on Educational Multimedia, Hypermedia & Telecommunications, Lugano, Switzerland.

Smith, G. G., Kurthen, H. (2004). Hybrid online face-to-face courses in micro-sociological perspective, Proceedings of ED-MEDIA 2004: World Conference on Educational Multimedia, Hypermedia & Telecommunications, Lugano, Switzerland.

Smith, G. G., Ferguson. D. (2003). Two-way online communication of diagrams and math notation: implications for instructional design of e-learning math courses, Proceedings of E-Learn 2003: World Conference on E-Learning in Corporate, Healthcare, & Higher Education, 735-738.

Smith, G. G., Olkun, S. (2003). Leap before you look: Interact then mentally rotate - spatial skills, Proceedings of ED-MEDIA 2003: World Conference on Educational Multimedia, Hypermedia & Telecommunications, USA, 4, 2798-2803.

Smith, G., G., Grackin, J. A., Ferguson, D., & Gupta, S. (2003). Distance calculus students’ understanding of derivative, Proceedings of ED-MEDIA 2003: World Conference on Educational Multimedia, Hypermedia & Telecommunications, USA, 1, 215-220.

Smith, G. G., Grackin, J.A., Ferguson, D. & Izubuchi, R. (2002). Math and Distance Learning threaded discussions, Proceedings of ED-MEDIA 2002: World Conference on Educational Multimedia, Hypermedia & Telecommunications, USA, 3, 1819-1824.

Smith, G. G., (2002). Java WEB-based K-12 Experimental Research: Formative evaluation of Research Tools, Proceedings of ED-MEDIA 2002: World Conference on Educational Multimedia, Hypermedia & Telecommunications, USA, 3,1817-1818.

Smith, G., G,. (2001). Interaction Evokes Reflection, Proceedings of ED-MEDIA 2001: World Conference on Educational Multimedia, Hypermedia & Telecommunications, Finland, 3, 1755-1760.

Smith, G. G, Ferguson, D., & Caris M. (2001). Teaching Online versus in the Classroom, Proceedings of ED-MEDIA 2001: World Conference on Educational Multimedia, Hypermedia & Telecommunications, Finland, 3, 1761-1766.