Teaching

Bloom's Taxonomy

One tool that can help you write meaningful and specific learning objectives and outcomes is Bloom's Taxonomy of Educational Objectives. Bloom's Taxonomy not only lists six "levels" of objectives (from basic knowledge to higher-order tasks like evaluation), it also provided good "action" verbs that are useful when writing objectives. Here are the levels and the associated verbs that correspond with each level.

1. Knowledge

Arrange, define, describe, designate, duplicate, enumerate, identify, indicate, know, label, list, match, name, recall, recite, recognize, record, repeat, reproduce, select, state


2. Comprehension

Alter, change, cite, convert, demonstrate, describe, discuss, estimate, explain, express, extrapolate, generalize, give examples, identify, illustrate, indicate, interpret, paraphrase, predict, recognize, report, represent, restate, revise, rewrite, simplify, summarize, translate


3. Application

Apply, articulate, calculate, chart, collect, compute, construct, contribute, demonstrate, derive, determine, develop, discover, dramatize, employ, establish, extend, illustrate, implement, include, investigate, manipulate, operate, organize, predict, prepare, preserve, produce, project, provide, relate, schedule, show, sketch, solve, transfer, translate, use, utilize, write

4. Analysis (considered a higher level)

Analyze, break down, categorize, compare, contrast, correlate, determine, diagram, differentiate, discriminate, distinguish, examine, experiment, identify, induce, infer, inspect, outline, prioritize, question, recognize, relate, select, separate, subdivide, solve, test

5. Synthesis (considered a higher level)


Assemble, build, collaborate, collect, combine, communicate, compile, compose, construct, create, design, devise, develop, facilitate, formulate, generate, incorporate, integrate, intervene, manage, model, modify, negotiate, organize, perform, plan, prepare, produce, propose, reinforce, relate, reorganize, revise, set up, structure, substitute, synthesize, unite


6. Evaluation (considered a higher level)

Appraise, argue, assess, conclude, contrast, criticize, critique, decide, defend, estimate, evaluate, grade, interpret, judge, justify, predict, rate, reframe, revise, score, select, support, value, verify