Center for Red Tide Tracking and Forecasting


Red-tide related papers by members of the Center for Red Tide Tracking and Forecasting

Hu, C., Y. Yao, J. P. Cannizzaro, M. Garrett, M. Harper, L. Markley, C. Villac, and K. Hubbard (2022). Karenia brevis bloom patterns on the west Florida shelf between 2003 and 2019: Integration of field and satellite observations. Harmful Algae, 117, 102289

Liu, Y., Weisberg, R.H., Zheng, L., Heil, C.A., Hubbard, K.A. (2022), Termination of the 2018 Florida red tide event: A tracer model perspective, Estuarine, Coastal and Shelf Science, 272, 107901,

Weisberg, R.H., Liu, Y. (2022), Local and deep-ocean forcing effects on the West Florida Shelf circulation and ecology, Frontiers in Marine Science,

Beck, M., Altieri, A., Angelini, C., Burke, M.C., Chen, J., Chin, D.W., Gardiner, J., Hu, C., Hubbard, K.A., Liu, Y., Lopez, C., Medina, M., Morrison, E., Philips, E.J., Raulerson, G.E., Scolaro, S., Sherwood., E.T., Tomasko, D., Weisberg, R.H., Whalen, J. (2022), Initial estuarine response to inorganic nutrient inputs from a legacy mining facility adjacent to Tampa Bay, Florida, Marine Pollution Bulletin, 178, 113598,

Weisberg, R.H., Y. Liu, C. Lembke, C. Hu, K. Hubbard, M. Garratt (2019), The Coastal Ocean Circulation Influence on the 2018 West Florida Shelf K. brevis Red Tide Bloom, J. Geophys. Res.: Oceans, 124, doi:10.1029

Weisberg, R.H. (2019), Chapter 3: Material Transports, in “Wind-borne illness from coastal seas: Present and future consequences of toxic marine aerosols” by J.J. Walsh, R.H. Weisberg and J.M. Lenes, Elsevier, doi:10.1016/B978-0-12-812131-3.00003-3.

Weisberg, R.H. and Y. Liu (2017), On the Loop current penetration into the Gulf of Mexico, Journal of Geophysical Research: Oceans, 122, 9679-9694, doi: 10.1002/2017JC013330,

Walsh, J.J., J.M. Lenes, R.H. Weisberg, L. Zheng, C. Hu, K.A. Fanning, R. Snyder, J. Smith (2017), More surprises in the global greenhouse: Human health impacts from recent toxic marine aerosol formations, due to centennial alterations of world-wide coastal food webs, Mar. Poll. Bull., doi:10.1016/j.marpolbul.2016.12.053.

Weisberg, R.H., L. Zheng, and Y. Liu (2016), West Florida Shelf upwelling: Origins and pathways, Journal of Geophysical Research: Oceans, 121, 5672-5681,

Liu, Y., R.H. Weisberg, J.M. Lenes, L. Zheng, K. Hubbard, and J.J Walsh (2016), Offshore forcing on the "pressure point" of the West Florida Shelf: Anomalous upwelling and its influence on harmful algal blooms, Journal of Geophysical Research: Oceans, 121, 5501-5515,

Weisberg, R.H., L.Y. Zheng, Y. Liu, A. Corcoran, C. Lembke, C. Hu, J. Lenes, and J. Walsh (2016).  Kerenia brevis blooms on the west Florida shelf: A comparative study of the robust 2012 bloom and the nearly null 2013 event.  Continental Shelf Research, 120, 106-121,

Walsh, J.J., J.M. Lenes, B.P. Darrow, A.A. Parks, R.H. Weisberg (2016).  Impacts of combined overfishing and oil spills on the plankton trophodynamics of the West Florida shelf over the last half century of 1957-2011: A two-dimensional simulation analysis, Cont. Shelf Res., 116, 54-73.

Hu, C., B. Murch, A.A. Corcoran, L. Zheng, B.B. Barnes, R.H. Weisberg, K. Atwood, and J. M. Lenes (2016). Developing a smart semantic Web with linked data and models for near-real-time monitoring of red tides in the eastern Gulf of Mexico. IEEE Systems Journal, Doi:10.1109/JSYST.2015.2440782.

Walsh, J.J., J.M. Lenes, B.P. Darrow, A.A. Parks, R.H. Weisberg, L. Zheng, C. Hu, B.B. Barnes, K.L. Daly, S.-I. Shin, G.R. Brooks, W.H. Jeffrey, R.A. Snyder, and D. Hollander (2015). A simulation analysis of the plankton fate of the Deepwater Horizon oil spills, Cont. Shelf, Res., 107, 50-68,

Liu, Y., H. Kerkering and R.H. Weisberg (2015). Introduction to Coastal Ocean Observing Systems, in Coastal Ocean Observing Systems, Y. Liu, H. Kerkering and R.H. Weisberg, eds., Elsevier, London, ISBN: 978-0-12-802022-7, 461pp.

Weisberg, R.H., L. Zheng and Y. Liu (2015). Basic tenets for coastal ocean ecosystems monitoring, in Coastal Ocean Observing Systems, Y. Liu, H. Kerkering and R.H. Weisberg, eds., Elsevier, London, ISBN: 978-0-12-802022-7, 461pp.

Heil, C.A., L.K. Dixon, E. Hall, M. Garrett, J.M. Lenes, J.M. O’Neil, B.M. Walsh, D.A, Bronk, L. Killberg-Thoreson, G.L. Hichcock, K. A. Meyer, M.R. Mulholland, L. Procise, G.J. Kirkpatrick, J.J. Walsh, and R.H. Weisberg (2014). Blooms of Karenia brevis (Davis) G. Hansen & O. Moestrup on the West Florida Shelf: Nutrient sources and potential management strategiesbased on a multi-year regional study. Harmful Algae, 38, 127-140, doi:10.1016/j.hal.2014.07.016.

Heil, C.A., D.A, Bronk, L.K. Dixon, G.L. Hitchcock, G.J. Kirkpatrick, M.R. Mulholland, J.M. O’Neil, J.J. Walsh, R.H. Weisberg, and M. Garrett (2014). The Gulf of Mexico ECOHAB:Karenia Program 2006-2012. Harmful Algae, 38, 3-7, doi:10.1016/j.hal.2014.07.015.

Weisberg, R.H., L. Zheng, Y. Liu, C. Lembke, J.M. Lenes and J.J. Walsh (2014), Why a red tide was not observed on the West Florida Continental Shelf in 2010. Harmful Algae, 38, 119-126, doi:10.1016/j.hal.2014.04.010.

Zhao, J., C. Hu, J. M. Lenes, R.H. Weisberg, C. Lembke, et al. (2013). Three-dimensional structure of a Karenia brevis bloom: observations from gliders, satellites, field measurements, and numerical models. Harmful Algae, 29, 22–30.

Liu, Y. and R.H. Weisberg (2012), Seasonal Variability on the West Florida Shelf. Prog. Oceanogr., 104, 80-98, doi:10.1016/j.pocean.2012.06.001.

Lenes, J.M., B.P. Darrow, J.J. Walsh, J.K. Jolliff, F.R. Chen, R.H. Weisberg, and L. Zheng (2012), A 1-D simulation analysis of the development and maintenance of the 2001 red tide of the ichthyotoxic dinoflagellate Karenia brevis on the West Florida shelf.  Cont. Shelf Res., 41, 92-100, doi:10.1016/j.csr.2012.04.007.

Zheng, L. and R.H. Weisberg (2012), Modeling the West Florida Coastal Ocean by Downscaling from the Deep Ocean, Across the Continental Shelf and into the Estuaries, Ocean Modeling, 48 (2012), 10-29, doi:10.1016/j.ocemod.2012.02.002.

Weisberg, R.H. (2011) Coastal Ocean Pollution, Water Quality and Ecology: A Commentary, MTS Journal, Vol. 45, No. 2, 35-42.

Weisberg, R.H., A. Barth, A. Alvera-Azcárate, and L. Zheng (2009). A coordinated coastal ocean observing and modeling system for the West Florida Shelf, Harmful Algae., 8, 585-598.

Lenes, J.M., B.A Darrow, J.J. Walsh, J.M. Prospero, R. He, R.H. Weisberg, G.A. Vargo, and C.A Heil (2008). Saharan dust and phosphatic fidelity: A three-dimensional biogeochemical model of Trichodesmium as a nutrient source for red tides on the West Florida Shelf, Cont. Shelf Res., 28, 1091-1115.

Milroy, S.P., D.A. Dieterle, R. He, G.J. Kirkpatrick, K.M. Lester, K.A. Steidinger, G.A. Vargo, J.J. Walsh, and R.H. Weisberg (2008). A three-dimensional biophysical model of Karenia brevis dynamics on the west Florida shelf: A look at physical transport and zooplankton grazing controls. Cont. Shelf Res., 28, 112-136.

Barth, A., A. Alvera-Azcárate, and R. H. Weisberg (2008). A Nested Model Study of the Loop Current Generated Variability and its Impact on the West Florida Shelf, Jour. Geophys. Res., 113, C05009, doi:10.1029/2007JC004492.

Alvera-Azcárate, A., A. Barth, J.M. Beckers, and R.H. Weisberg. (2007). Multivariate reconstruction of missing data in sea surface temperature, chlorophyll and wind satellite fields. J. Geophys. Res., 112, C03008, doi:10.1029/2006JC003660.

Liu, Y., R.H. Weisberg, and L.K. Shay (2007). Current patterns on the West Florida Shelf from joint Self-Organizing Map analyses of HF radar and ADCP Data, J. Atmos. Oceanic Technol., 24, 702-712.

Walsh, J.J., J.K. Jolliff, B.P. Darrow, J.M. Lenes, S.P Milroy, A Remsen, D.A. Dieterle, K.L. Carder, F.R. Chen, G.A.Vargo, R.H. Weisberg, K.A. Fanning, F. Muller-Karger, K.A. Steidinger, C.A. Heil, C.R. Tomas, J.S. Prospero, T.N. Lee, G.J. Kirkpatrick, T.E. Witledge, D.A. Stockwell, T.A. Villareal, A.E. Jochens, and P.S. Bontempi (2006). Red tides in the Gulf of Mexico: Where, when, and why? J. Geophys. Res., 111, C11003, doi:10.1029/2004JC002813.

Liu, Y., R.H. Weisberg, and R. He (2006).  Sea surface temperature patterns on the West Florida Shelf using growing hierarchical self-organizing maps.  J. Atm. Ocean. Tech., 23, 2, 325–338.

Liu, Y. and R.H. Weisberg (2005). Patterns of ocean current variability on the West Florida Shelf using the self-organizing map . J. Geophys. Res., 110, C6, C06003

Weisberg, R.H., R. He, Y. Liu, and J.I. Virmani (2005).  West Florida shelf circulation on synoptic, seasonal, and inter-annual time scales, in Circulation in the Gulf of Mexico, W. Sturges and A. Lugo-Fernandez, eds., AGU monograph series, Geophysical Monograph 161, 325-347.

Hu, C., J.R. Nelson, E. Johns, Z. Chen, R.H. Weisberg, and F. Muller-Karger (2005). Mississippi water in the Florida Straits and in the Gulf Stream off the coast of Georgia in summer 2004. Geophys. Res. Lett., 32 L14606, doi:10.1029/2005GL022942

Weisberg, R.H., R. He, G. Kirkpatrick, F. Muller-Karger, and J.J. Walsh (2004). Coastal ocean circulation influences on remotely sensed optical properties: A west Florida shelf case study. Oceanography, 17, 68-75.

Jolliff, J.K., J.J. Walsh, R. He, R.H. Weisberg, A. Stovall-Leonard, P.G. Coble, R. Comny, C. Heil, B. Nababan, H. Zhang, C. Hu, and F. Muller-Karger (2003). Dispersal of the Suwannee River plume over the West Florida shelf: Simulation and observation of the optical and biochemical consequences of a flushing event. Geophys. Res. Letts., 30, 13, 1709.

Walsh, J.J., R.H. Weisberg, D.A. Dieterle, R. He, B.P. Darrow, J.K. Jolliff, K.M. Lester, G.A. Vargo, G.J. Kirkpatrick, K.A. Fanning, T.T. Sutton, A.E. Jochens, D.C. Briggs, B. Nababan, C. Hu, and F. Muller-Karger (2003).  The phytoplankton response to intrusions of slope water on the West Florida Shelf: models and observations.  J. Geophys. Res., 108, C6, 15, doi:10.1029/2002JC001406.

Weisberg, R.H. and R. He (2003).  Local and deep-ocean forcing contributions to anomalous water properties on the West Florida Shelf.  J. Geophys. Res., 108, C6, 15, doi:10.1029/2002JC001407.

He, R and R.H. Weisberg (2003).  A Loop Current intrusion case study on the West Florida Shelf.  J. Phys. Oceanogr., 33, 465-477.

Hu, C, et al. (2002). Satellite images track “black water” event off Florida coast. EOS, Trans. Am. Geophys. Un., 83, pp281,285.

Walsh, J.J. K.D. Haddad, D.A. Dieterle, R.H. Weisberg, Z. Li, H. Yang, F.E. Muller-Karger, C.A. Heil, and W.P. Bissett (2002). A numerical analysis of the landfall of 1979 red tide of Karenia brevis along the west coast of Florida. Cont. Shelf Res., 22, 15-38.

Vargo, G.A., C.A. Heil, D. Spence, M.B. Neely, R. Merkt, K. Lester, R.H. Weisberg, J.J.Walsh and K. Fanning (2001). The Hydrographic regime, nutrient requirements, and transport of a Gymnodinium breve Davis red tide on the West Florida shelf. Proceeding of the IXth International Conference on Harmful Algal Blooms, Feb 7-11, 2000. Hobart, Australia. G.M. Hallegraeff, S. I. Blackburn, C.J. Bolch, and R.J. Lewis (eds.), 157-160.

Red-tide related papers by C. Hu with associates and students

Soto, I.M., C. Hu, J. Cannizzaro, J. Wolny, and F. E. Muller-Karger (2021). Remote detection of glooms of the neurotoxic dinoflagellate Karenia brevis on the West Florida Shelf. In: IOCCG (2021). Observation of Harmful Algal Blooms with Ocean Colour Radiometry. Bernard, S., Kudela, R., Robertson Lain, L. and Pitcher, G.C. (eds.), IOCCG Report Series, No. 20, International Ocean Colour Coordinating Group, Dartmouth, Canada, pp. 61-71.

Cannizzaro, J., I. Soto, C. Hu (2018). Remote sensing as a monitoring and modeling tool. In Steidinger, K.A. and Meave del Castillo, M.E. [Eds.] Guide to the Identification of Harmful Microalgae in the Gulf of Mexico. St. Petersburg, FL, USA, Florida Fish and Wildlife Conservation Commission, Fish and Wildlife Research Institute, pp 523-246.

Qi, L., C. Hu, B.B. Barnes, Z. Lee (2017). VIIRS captures phytoplankton vertical migration in the NE Gulf of Mexico. Harmful Algae, 66, 40-46,

Hu, C. and L. Feng (2017). Modified MODIS fluorescence line height data product to improve image interpretation for red tide monitoring in the eastern Gulf of Mexico. J. Appl. Remote Sens., 11(1), 012003,

Hu, C., B.B. Barnes, L. Qi, C. Lembke, D. English (2016). Vertical migration of Karenia brevis in the northeastern Gulf of Mexico observed from glider measurements. Harmful Algae, 58, 59-65,

Soto, I.M., F.M. Muller-Karger, C. Hu, J. Wolny (2016). Characterization of Karenia brevis blooms on the West Florida Shelf using ocean color satellite imagery: Implications for bloom maintenance and evolution. J. of Appl. Remote Sens., 11(1), 012002.

Hu, C., B. Murch, A.A. Corcoran, L. Zheng, B.B. Barnes, R.H. Weisberg, K. Atwood, J.M. Lenes (2016). Developing a smart semantic web with linked data and models for near real-time monitoring of red tides in the eastern Gulf of Mexico. IEEE Systems Journal, 10, 1282-1290, doi:10.1109/JSYST.2015.2440782.

Hu, C., B.B. Barnes, L. Qi, A.A. Corcoran (2015). A harmful algal bloom of Karenia brevis in the northeastern Gulf of Mexico as revealed by MODIS and VIIRS: A comparison. Sensors, 15, 2873-2887,

Soto, I.M., J. Cannizzaro, F.E. Muller-Karger, C. Hu, J. Wolny, D. Goldgof (2015). Evaluation and optimization of remote sensing techniques for detection of Karenia brevis blooms on the West Florida Shelf. Remote Sens. Environ., 170, 239-254,

Qi, L., C. Hu, J. Cannizzaro, A.A. Corcoran, D. English, and C. Le (2015). VIIRS observations of a Karenia brevis bloom in the northeastern Gulf of Mexico in the absence of a fluorescence band. IEEE Geosci. Remote Sens. Lett., 12, 2213-2217, doi:10.1109/LGRS.2015.2457773.

Hu, C., S. Sathyendranath, J.D. Shutler, C.W. Brown, T.S. Moore, S.E. Craig, I. Soto, A. Subramaniam (2014). Detection of dominant algal blooms by remote sensing. In: IOCCG (2014). Phytoplankton Functional Types from Space. Sathyendranath, S. (ed.), Reports of the International Ocean-Colour Coordinating Group, No. 15, IOCCG, Dartmouth, Canada, pp. 39-70.

Hu, C. and L. Feng (2014). GOES Imager shows diurnal change of a Trichodesmium erythraeum bloom on the west Florida shelf. IEEE Geosci. Remote Sens. Lett., 11: 1428-1432.

Zhao, J., C. Hu, J.M. Lenes, R.H. Weisberg, C. Lembke, D. English, J. Wolny, L. Zheng, J.J. Walsh, G. Kirkpatrick (2013). Three-dimensional structure of a Karenia brevis bloom: observations from gliders, satellites, and field measurements. Harmful Algae, 29, 22-30,

Cannizzaro, J. P., P. R. Carlson Jr., L. A. Yarbro, and C. Hu (2013). Optical variability along a river plume gradient: Implications for management and remote sensing. Estuar. Coast. Shelf Sci., 131, 149-161,

Zhao, J., C. Hu, B. Lapointe, N. Melo, E.M. Johns, R.H. Smith (2013). Satellite-observed black water events off Southwest Florida: Implications for coral reef health in the Florida Keys National Marine Sanctuary. Remote Sens., 5, 415-431,

Soto, I.M., C. Hu, K. Steidinger, F. Muller-Karger, J. Cannizzaro, J. Wolny, S. Cerdeira-Estrada, E. Santamaria del Angel, F. Tafoya del Angel, P. Alvarez-Torres, J. Herrera Silveira, J. Allen (2012). Binational collaboration to study Gulf of Mexico's harmful algae. Eos, Trans. Am. Geophys. Un., 93, 49-50.

Hu, C., J. Cannizzaro, K.L. Carder, Z. Lee, F.E. Muller-Karger, I. Soto (2011). Red tide detection in the eastern Gulf of Mexico using MODIS imagery. In: Morales, J., V. Stuart, T. Platt, and S. Sathyendranath (Eds.). Handbook of Satellite Remote Sensing Image Interpretation: Applications for Marine Living Resources Conservation and Management, EU PRESPO and IOCCG, Dartmouth, Canada. pp. 95-110.

Hu, C., J. Cannizzaro, K.L.Carder, F.E. Muller-Karger, R. Hardy (2010). Remote detection of Trichodesmium blooms in optically complex coastal waters: Examples with MODIS full-spectral data. Remote Sens. Environ., 114, 2048-2058,

Cannizzaro, J.P., C. Hu, D.C. English, K.L. Carder, C.A. Heil, F.E. Muller-Karger (2009). Detection of Karenia brevis blooms on the west Florida shelf using in situ backscattering and fluorescence data. Harmful Algae, 8, 898-909,

Cannizzaro, J.P., K.L. Carder, F.R. Chen, C.A. Heil, G.A. Vargo (2008). A novel technique for detection of the toxic dinoflagellate, Karenia brevis, in the Gulf of Mexico from remotely sensed ocean color data. Cont. Shelf Res., 28: 137-158,

Hu, C. and F.E. Muller‐Karger (2008). Mexico‐US Harmful Algal Bloom Monitoring Efforts: Workshop on Taxonomy of Harmful Algal Blooms; Veracruz, Mexico, 18–22 February 2008. Eos, Trans. Am. Geophys. Un., 89(24), 219-219.

Hu, C., R. Luerssen, F.E. Muller-Karger, K.L. Carder, C.A. Heil (2008). On the remote monitoring of Karenia brevis blooms of the west Florida shelf. Cont. Shelf Res., 28(1), 159-176,

Hu, C., F.E. Muller‐Karger, P.W. Swarzenski (2006). Hurricanes, submarine groundwater discharge, and Florida's red tides. Geophys. Res. Lett., 33, L11601, doi:10.1029/2005GL025449.

Hu, C., F.E. Muller-Karger, C.J. Taylor, K.L. Carder, C. Kelble, E. Johns, C.A. Heil (2005). Red tide detection and tracing using MODIS fluorescence data: A regional example in SW Florida coastal waters. Rem. Sens. Environ., 97(3), 311-321,

Hu, C., F.E. Muller-Kager, G.A. Vargo, M.B. Neely, and E. Johns (2004). Linkages between coastal runoff and the Florida Keys ecosystem: A study of a dark plume event. Geophys. Res. Lett. 31, L15307, doi:10.1029/2004GL020382.

Hu, C., K.E. Hackett, M.K. Callahan, S. Andréfouët, J.L. Wheaton, J.W. Porter, F.E. Muller-Karger (2003). The 2002 ocean color anomaly in the Florida Bight: a cause of local coral reef decline? Geophys. Res. Lett., 30(3), 1151, doi:10.1029/2002GL016479.

South‐West Florida Dark‐Water Observations Group (SWFDOG) (2002). Satellite images track “black water” event off Florida coast, Eos, Trans. Am. Geophys. Un., 83, 281-285.