Examples: References as a Chapter | References as a Subsection of a Chapter


All theses/dissertations contain references. References provide detailed information regarding the published material (books, journals, websites, etc.) cited within the manuscript. Your reference style will be specified by the style guide or journal style being used by your discipline and must be consistent throughout the manuscript.

The most common ways to list references include:

  1. References for the entire manuscript are listed as a main section at the end of the manuscript. This will be the last chapter before the Appendices.
  2. References are listed as the last subsection of a chapter. The references section will have a 2nd order heading and will follow the text of the previous sections. It will not begin at the top of a new page.


General Formatting
  • Line Spacing: May be single-spaced or double-spaced.
  • References cannot be split over 2 pages. If a reference is split over two pages, push the top of the reference to the top of the next page.
  • One consistent style must be used throughout.
  • Pagination is contiguous, in Arabic numerals, and in the same location as other Main Body numbers.

As a Major Section Located at the End of the Manuscript

  • Heading is spaced 2" from the top of the page as a 1st order heading
  • Continuing pages are flush with the top 1” page margin.

As a Subsection of each Chapter

  • Heading is formatted as other 2nd order headings.
  • Section does not begin at the top of a new page unless the previous section ends at the bottom of the previous page.
  • Continuing pages are flush with the top 1" margin.